Pravo - teorija i praksa 2024-07-11T13:47:44+02:00 Phd. Jelena Matijašević Obradović [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p>Since 2010, together with the publishing house "PRAVO" from Novi Sad, the Faculty of Law for Commerce and Judiciary of the University Business Academy in Novi Sad has been publishing the scientific journal "Pravo - teorija i praksa<span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">". The journal has already been published for thirty-seven years. During the period from 2011 to 2018, the journal was categorized as the M53 category of academic journals by the Ministry of Education and Science. In 2019, the journal was categorized as a prominent national journal (category M52). In 2020, the journal is recognized as a top journal of national importance (category M51) for the scientific field of Law and Political Science. In 2023, the journal is recognized as </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">a national journal of international significance (Category: M24).</span></p> <p>By nurturing the exchange of opinions and ideas, the journal aims at promoting positive solutions in the normative, judicial and administrative practice. The journal deals with issues from all areas of law. Its sections are continually enriched by new content: current issues, views and opinions, original articles, new regulations, extracts from foreign law, comments on new regulations, comment on the existing court practice, overviews of monographs from seminars and conferences and conference proceedings.</p> <p>A large number of authors, research associates and renowned experts from all areas of law participate in the creation of the academic journal "Pravo - teorija i praksa".</p> <p>Thanks to its highly relevant and quality content, the journal has gained an envious reputation both in our country and abroad and has become a useful and reliable reference book for everyday legal practice.</p> <p>The academic journal "Pravo - teorija i praksa" is intended for all jurists and judicial bodies, institutions, businesses, private companies and entrepreneurs, as well as all legal entities who wish to stay informed and get introduced to new regulations, as well as court and legal practice. The journal is supposed to promote lawful, efficient and successful procedures in everyday legal practice.</p> <p>We invite you to subscribe to the academic journal "Pravo - teorija i praksa". There is a 37-year long tradition behind us as a guarantee of the quality of the periodical.</p> <p>The journal is issued in the form of four issues per volume, every three months, and the subscription is 25,000.00 dinars (250 euros for authors from abroad) per manuscript (we are exempt from payment of V.A.T.).</p> UNDERAGE MARRIAGE – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS 2024-05-09T12:05:42+02:00 Dalibor Krstinić [email protected] Milan Počuča [email protected] Nebojša Šarkić [email protected] <p>Underage marriages represent a specific form of marriage, established between underage partners, one or both of whom are minors. Underage marriage is a complex social phenomenon that withstands social changes, highlighting the relevance of this topic. The aim of the research of this paper is to look at the legal solutions concerning underage marriage in the Republic of Serbia with special reference to the legislations of France, England, Germany, Romania and Poland. By using the normative method, the authors will analyze the provisions of the most important laws that are relevant to the topic in the mentioned countries, while comparative analysis will reveal similarities and differences on issues related to underage marriage. Drawing on research that has examined the prevalence of underage marriages worldwide, the authors will present these findings to gain insights into the “real-life” situation, i.e., the prevalence of these marriages.</p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Dalibor Krstinić, Milan Počuča, Nebojša Šarkić Institutionalization of rights and responsibilities of the opposition in parliament – A comparative European perspective 2024-05-13T07:54:33+02:00 Balint Pasztor [email protected] <p> </p> <p>The subject of this study is an analysis of different normative solutions and degrees of institutionalization of the role of the opposition in parliaments across a number of European states, ranging from stipulation in the parliamentary rules of procedure to formal recognition of the opposition in the constitution of the state. Balance of the parliamentary political power as well as acknowledgement of the legitimate role of opposition ensures prerequisites for democratic social dialogue and active participation of responsible citizens in the processes of strengthening institutions of representative democracy. Therefore, only consensual political culture contributes to the political trust that citizens place in political institutions. Although there is no universally adopted model that defines the role of the parliamentary majority and opposition, it is undeniable that the post-democracy era requires a redefinition of basic concepts, such as parliamentary majority and opposition, as well as the role of parliament. The scope of the analysis is limited to a comparative overview of constitutional solutions that guarantee the rights of the opposition and the legal framework regulating the part of the rights of parliamentary opposition, which are realized in the process of creating policies. The aim of the paper is to strengthen mechanisms of parliamentary democracy and, in particular, to strengthen trust in the work of the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia, as only through the effective implementation of European experiences can public trust be built and standards of political culture be improved. Methodologically, the comparative approach is complemented by the analysis of comments and interpretations of constitutional acts, laws, rules of procedure, as well as recommendations of the Venice Commission.</p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Balint Pasztor VOJVODINA IN THE NATIONAL POLICY OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF YUGOSLAVIA 1918-1945 2024-05-24T09:53:07+02:00 Mileva Tomic [email protected] <p>The national policy of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY), between the two world wars, was formulated under the direct influence of the Comintern and was therefore subject to sudden and radical changes in the foreign policy of the USSR. Thus, in accordance with the foreign policy interests of the first socialist state, the national policy of the CPY ranged from demands for the disintegration of the Yugoslav kingdom to insisting on its constitutional reorganization. Within the federalist concept of the CPY, Vojvodina, as a “historical, geographical, and economic entity,” was also envisaged to have the status of a federal unit, with occasional and conditional acceptance of its autonomous status. Although based on a different ideological matrix, the arguments used by the communists to justify the need for a special constitutional status for Vojvodina were identical to the demands of the Croatian political movement and a segment of the civic opposition in the Vojvodina Front, which the CPY formally supported in the mid-1930s. Despite the fact that autonomist and federalist projects for Vojvodina were not widely supported by either the Serbs or its national minorities for various reasons, Vojvodina became an autonomous province when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, at the end of World War II, established a federal Yugoslavia in the context of agreements among the interested major powers.</p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mileva Tomic INDEPENDENCE OF THE JUDICIARY AS A PATH AND A GOAL – THE VOICE OF THE PROFESSION 2024-04-26T09:06:50+02:00 Valerija Dabetić [email protected] <p>The views and experiences of the judges are important for the performance of their duties, as well as for the improvement of their social and professional position. Therefore, the topic of this paper is the suggestions for improving the independence of the judiciary, which come from the representatives of the judicial profession. The paper is based on the results of extensive empirical research of the judges from all courts of general jurisdiction in Serbia. For the interpretation of the respondents’ answers (N=599), thematic analysis was used, allowing us to further categorize the received statements by the perspectives of the respondents. The conclusion is that judges see the greatest space for improvement in the area of institutional guarantees of independence, while they are significantly less oriented towards guarantees of personal independence. Apart from the theoretical contribution, the paper primarily has a practical goal in advocating social change, i.e. a normative framework based on the guidelines that come from those to whom the regulations refer.</p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Valerija Dabetić DETERMINANTS OF EFFECTIVE TAX RATES OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISES AS AN INDICATION OF TAX AVOIDANCE ON PROFIT TAX 2024-01-29T13:35:40+01:00 Goranka Knezevic [email protected] Vladimir Ristanović [email protected] Vladan Pavlovic [email protected] <p>Scientific research related to the avoidance of calculation and payment of profit tax in public enterprises is very rare, due to the belief that public enterprises do not avoid paying profit tax because their owner is the state, city, or local government unit. The research conducted in this paper has shown that the largest public enterprises in Serbia, which have a high profitability rate, as well as capital-intensive enterprises, have a higher effective tax rate and do not use tax planning techniques to avoid taxes. These findings can be considered scientifically adequate. All other determinants used in this paper did not show a statistically significant impact on the effective tax rate. When deciding and implementing the profit tax rate policy, as well as tax exemptions, the state must take into account the specificities of the operations of public enterprises and assess the effects of these policies on this sector of the economy.</p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Goranka Knezevic, Vladimir Ristanović, Vladan Pavlovic REASONS AND FORMS OF LEGAL HERMENEUTICS 2024-05-28T11:34:59+02:00 Dejan Logarušić [email protected] Milan Rapajić [email protected] Darko Golić [email protected] <p>Hermeneutics, or interpretation, can be defined as a procedure to clarify something that is incomprehensible, unclear or insufficiently understandable, insufficiently clear, and to interpret it to the level of comprehensibility. Hermeneutics can rightfully be called the art of understanding. Legal hermeneutics as an art is, in principle, a very complex process that can also be characterized as a process requiring the application of knowledge from various scientific fields. Legal knowledge, in the specific case of interpreting legal norms by procedural bodies, cannot be disputed. However, legal knowledge is not always sufficient to ensure adequate interpretation and application of law in a given case. The need for legal hermeneutics arises in situations where there is a discrepancy between the spirit and letter of a legal norm, when the legal norm is unclear, contradictory, ambiguous, or even polysemous, and of course, in situations where there is an absence of legal norms regulating a specific issue. The above indicates the importance and dimension of the application of legal hermeneutics as a timeless skill in the field of law and the application of legal norms. In line with the topic, the paper analyzes several important questions: how to define the term legal hermeneutics, what are the reasons leading to the need for legal hermeneutics, and finally, which characteristic forms of legal hermeneutics can be singled out and presented more closely, according to the criterion of means or methods of interpretation.</p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Dejan Logarušić, Milan Rapajić , Darko Golić MOBBING AS RETALIATION AGAINST WHISTLEBLOWERS 2024-04-25T08:59:49+02:00 Aleš Pachmann [email protected] Tomáš Klůs [email protected] <p><em>Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2019 on the protection of persons who report breaches of Union law prohibits retaliation against whistleblowers, particularly in the form of coercion, intimidation, discrimination, unfavorable or unjust treatment. This potential of relation to EU anti- discrimination legislation is not entirely clear. The current limited judicial practice from the Czech Republic still lacks clear answers. The aim of this paper is to assess and analyze the relationship between EU legislation on whistleblower protection and anti-discrimination legislation.</em></p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Aleš Pachmann, Tomáš Klůs THE GROWTH OF E-COMMERCE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA 2024-03-04T22:07:28+01:00 Ivana Ljubicic [email protected] Vanja Štokić [email protected] <p>E-commerce has an increasing importance in the world and every year the volume of e-commerce in the world and in all individual countries increases, and Serbia is no exception in this sense. It is the result of the fact that more and more advanced devices (mobile phones, smart watches, computers, tablets) are more and more available, then faster and faster internet and the increasing presence of payment cards and the increasing security of online payments. During the pandemic and lockdown, shopping suddenly became electronic, and the growth was huge – companies were pressured to make rapid digitalization, and although the post-pandemic trend is such that the growth of e-commerce has decreased, it has remained at a high level and is growing. In Serbia, trends follow similar paths. The growth in Serbia coincides with the trend of increasing online trade transactions, as well as increasing the share of mobile transactions. On the other hand, the Serbian market is specific in that the largest niche is occupied by fashion and not books and music as in the West, and the largest supplier is China. Taking over the market from classic, physical stores is not expected. The take-up percentage is too small, unless there is a big shift in the coming years, i.e. unless Generation Z comes to a dominant position with completely different buying habits and suddenly reverses the tendencies, which is very possible.</p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ivana Ljubicic, Vanja Štokić OBLIGATION TO UPDATE DIGITAL PRODUCTS IN DELIVERY AGREEMENTS 2024-05-13T07:33:27+02:00 Ratko Ivković [email protected] Milan Ječmenić [email protected] <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze the legal obligations to update digital products within the context of contracts for the supply of digital content and digital services. Through a legal analysis of the provisions of the German Civil Code relevant to this obligation, the study explores the specificities that make this requirement distinctive for digital products. The research methodology includes a qualitative analysis of legal texts and relevant literature to identify key elements and challenges in the implementation of the obligation to update. The findings reveal that suppliers are legally obliged to provide updates for digital products even when such an obligation is not explicitly stipulated in the contract. This research contributes to a better understanding of the legal aspects of updating digital products and provides a foundation for future legislative initiatives and practical guidelines for suppliers.</p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ratko Ivković, Milan Ječmenić CRIMINAL OFFENSE OF INCITING NATIONAL, RACIAL, AND RELIGIOUS HATRED AND INTOLERANCE 2024-04-29T09:51:38+02:00 Adrian Borka [email protected] <p>In our region, multi-ethnicity, multi-confessionalism, and multilingualism are common phenomena, and therefore the challenges they face are not exceptions. With the emancipation and transition of countries in the region, accession to the European Union, states have brought new legislative frameworks in which they have recognized long- standing personal characteristics of their citizens, provided protection for these characteristics, and criminalized attacks based on these personal characteristics, as well as incitement of hatred and intolerance based on the same. This paper presents the criminal offense of inciting national, racial, and religious hatred and intolerance, within the framework of constitutional and particularly criminal law. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the legal framework and the provision of the offense in the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, the actions and methods of committing this criminal offense. Additionally, attention is given to the analysis of motives and reasons, as well as the consequences of committing this offense, questions of causality and possibilities of concurrence with other criminal offenses. Some important characteristics of this criminal offense are also discussed, such as: place, object, time, perpetrator, and form of guilt for the execution of the crime.</p> 2024-07-11T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Adrian Borka